….or How to Answer Your Own Questions
This walk-thru shows how to hunt down the answer to an implementation question. The example references sklearn, github, and python. The post is intended for data scientists new to coding and anyone looking for a guide to answering their own code questions.
gridsearchCVuse the same cross validation train/test splits for evaluating each hyperparameter combination?
A student recently asked me the above question. Well, he didn’t pose it as formally as all that, but this was the underlying idea. I had to think for a minute. I knew what I assumed the implementation was, but I didn’t know for sure. When I told him I didn’t know but I could find out he indicated that his question was more of a moment’s curiosity than any real interest. I could’ve left it there. But now I was curious. And so began this blog post.
I began my research as any good data scientist does:
It’s true, this question is a little bit nit-picky. So, I wasn’t completely surprised when the answer didn’t bubble right up to the top of my google results.
I had to break out my real gumshoe skills: I added “stackexchange” to my query.
Now I had googled my question–twice–and no useful results. What was a data scientist to do?
Before losing all hope, I rephrased the question a few times (always good practice, but particularly useful in data science with its many terms for the same thing). Yet still no luck. The internet’s forums held no answers for me. This only made me more determined to find the answer.
There’s always the option to….read the documentation (which I did). But, as often is the case with questions that are not already easily google-able, the documentation did not answer the question I was asking.
“Fine.” I thought. “I’ll answer the question myself.”
How do you answer a question about implementation?
Look at the implementation. I.e, read the code.
Now, this is where many newer data scientists feel a bit uneasy. And that’s why I’m taking you on this adventure with me.
The Wonderland of Someone Else’s Code
Read the sklearn code?!?
If it feels like an invasion, it’s not. If it feels scary, it won’t be (after a you get used to it.) But if it sounds…dangerous? That’s because it is.
…Insofar as a rabbit hole is dangerous. Much like Alice’s journey through Wonderland, digging through someone else’s code can be an adventure fraught with enticing diversions, distracting enticements, and an entirely mad
import party. It’s easy to find yourself in the Wonderland of someone else’s repo hours after you started, no closer to an answer, and having mostly forgotten which rabbit you followed here in the first place.
Much like Alice’s adventure, it’s a personal journey too. Reading someone else’s code can reveal a lot about you as a coder and as a colleague. But, that’s for another blog post .
Warned of the dangers, with our wits about us, and with our question firmly in hand (seriously–it helps to right it down), we begin our journey.
How do we find this rabbit hole of code in the first place? A simple google search of “GridSearchCV sklearn github” will get us fairly close.
Clicking through the first result get us to the .py file we need.
We know that GridSearchCV is a class, so we’re looking for the class definition. CMD(CTRL) + F “class GridSearchCV” will take us here.
We note that
GridSearchCV inherits from
BaseSearchCV. Right now, this could be a costly diversion. But, there’s a good chance we might need this later. So this is good a breadcrumb to mentally pickup.
And–Great! A docstring!
Oh, wait–a 300 line docstring. If we have the time we could peruse it, but if we skim it we notice it’s very similar to the documentation (which makes sense). We don’t expect to find any new information there, so we make the judgment call and pass by this diversion.
We scroll to the end of that lengthy docstring and find there are only two methods defined for this class (
_run_search is the one we need.
Ok. So what’s this
We can follow the same method of operation and search for
def evaluate_candidates. With a little (ok, a lot) of scrolling we’ll see it’s a method of the
BaseSearchCV class. Now, is when we pause to pat ourselves on the back for noting the inheritance earlier (pat, pat, pat).
Here we can finally start to inspect the implementation:
So….that’s a lot. After a cursory reading through the code, it becomes clear that the real work we’re concerned with happens here:
product, if you’re not familiar, is imported from the the fabulous
itertools module which provides combinatorial functions like
product (used here).
(Worthy Read for Later:
has far more utility than listed here and it is certainly worth getting familiar with docs.)
product call for the
cv.split. What does
product yield? It returns an
iterator whose elements comprise the cartesian product of the arguments passed to it.
Now we’ve got distractions at every corner. We could chase
itertools, parallel,BaseSearchCV, or any of the other fun things.
This is where having our wits about us helps. We can look back to our scribbled question: “Does sklearn’s
gridsearchCV use the same cross validation test splits for evaluating each hyperparameter combination?” Despite the tempting distractions, we are getting very close to the answer. Let’s focus on that
Ok, great. So we have the cartesian product of
cv.split(X, y, groups).
Thank Guido for readability counting, am I right?
From here it’s a safe bet that
candidate_params are indeed the candidate parameters for our grid search.
cv is cross validation and
split returns precisely what we’d expect.
It might look concerning that one of the arguments passed to
product is itself a call to the
split method of
cv. You might wonder “Is it called multiple times? Will it generate new cv splits for every element?”
Fear not, for
split behave just as we would hope.
split returns a generator, a discussion of which merits its own post. For these purposes it’s enough to say
split acts like an iterator (e.g. list).
product treats it the same as it would a list.
Let’s say we didn’t already know that (because we probably didn’t). When it comes to many common functions, we can often quickly test behavior with toy cases to answer our questions:
Great! Now all we have to do is look at this in its larger context:
It looks like
parallel will help us manage this execution. We could go hunt down how they do this, and it might be a worthy journey when time is not of the essence. For right now, we’ve got our wits about us and we’ve already answered our question:
gridsearchCV uses the same cross validation train/test splits for evaluating each hyperparameter combination.
There we have it. We’ve answered out question (yes!), we’ve might’ve learned about a cool new module (
itertools), we even bookmarked a few diversions for if-we-ever-have-extra-time (
BaseSearchCV,….), and we did it all without too much distraction. Maybe we can even take lunch today!
Special thanks to Damien Martin, a fellow Metis SDS, for giving my post a good once-over. You can find his blog at kiwidamien.github.io where you might want to start by reading his empirical Bayes series.